The regeneration gas heater is fired with one percent of the clean landfill gas during this period. Key Features of Commercial Pretreatment System Conceptual Design Design Feature Product Benefit 7 psig nominal operating pressure Two refrigeration stages Vaporization and incineration of liquid con- densates from refrigeration stages All dry beds regenerable Beds regenerated with heated clean fuel fol- lowed by low NO, incineration Recover heat from incineration for vapor- ization of refrigeration condensate and heating clean regeneration gas Low pumping power Handle wide range of landfill gases Improve effectiveness of regenerable beds No contaminated liquid effluents for dis- posal Minimal solid waste disposal No contaminated liquid effluent High thermal efficiency The pretreatment system was analyzed to estimate the overall thermal efficiency, the internal electric power requirements, and its maintenance characteristics. Manual start-up is acceptable for the demonstration program. The system designed for this program has been modified to reflect the knowledge gained at that site. Safety Industrial Waste Occ.

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An evaluation of state regulations revealed that collec- tion and control requirements generally necessitate venting, or the use of a flare. A second issue is to provide mechanical components in the reactant gas supply systems to accommodate the larger flow rates that result from use of dilute methane fuel.

The air emissions are significantly lower than other landfill gas con- version devices giving the fuel cell power plant the potential for being the best available control tech- nology for landfill gas methane mitigation.

The first stage provides flexibility to accommodate the varying landfill characteristics by delivering a low dew point gas with a relatively narrow cut of hydrocarbons for the downstream beds in the pretreatment system. The system consists of seven major subsystems: This concept is based on Bio Gas Development landfill gas condensate removal composition data and experience at similar operating conditions. These requirements were used by IFC to define demonstration site selection criteria, and pretreatment module and fuel cell power plant designs.


The design specifications and stampings of the pretreatment 223.32 shall be consistent with 223.32 national, state and local codes and regulations as listed in Section 2. The case shown in Figure 2. Vendor experience will be used in the selection and sizing of the molecular sieve to minimize potential interference and to calculate the required molecular sieve bed volume to compensate for any interference.

A portion of this gas is extracted to provide regeneration gas. In the commer- cial application, this condensate is ahi and incinerated to avoid all site liquid effluents. This list will be utilized to make contacts with various permitting agencies to define the final permitting re- quirements for this demonstration in Phase U. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa- tion Service.

Phase I Final Report: It is anticipated that the system will be a complete skid mounted and truck-transportable unit designed for exposed weather installation and unattended operation with safety controls to provide automatic shutdown.

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State require- ments are generally limited to controlling explosion hazards, typically limiting methane concentrations to below 25 percent of the lower wti limit. We will confirm that the operation 232.23 all electrical, mechanical and control functions meet the design requirements. These beds are periodically regenerated as stated above with the regeneration gas being burned in a low NO, flare. This includes air emissions from both the fuel cell and pretreatment system as well as solid and liquid effluents projected for the commercial system.

Each fuel cell would consume Figure shows an aerial photograph of the Penrose Station which is located off Tujunga Avenue along the edge 232.3 the Penrose landfill. The pretreatment system supply pressure is approximately 10 psig.


I The pretreatment system shall have a metal identification plate attached with the following j information at a minimum: These additional modifications will be studied further to assess the cost impact to the program and to judge the benefit to the demonstration.

The conceptual design is based on providing a modular, packaged, energy conversion system which can operate on landfill gases with a wide range of compositions as typically found in the United States. Phase n program logic is shown in Figure 2. It is estimated that less than 20 Ibs of attrited activated carbon and molecular sieve bed material will be collected by this filter over the one year demonstration period.

The NMOC concentration in the landfill gas is an important measure of the total capacity required in the gas pretreatment system, while the specific individual analyses provide a basis for gas pretreat- ment subcomponent sizing.

Then during a regeneration cycle they are stripped from the absorption me- dia and destroyed by incineration. 2232.32

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Landfill gas analyses of the feed gas and output will define the effectiveness of the pretreat unit to clean up the LFG. These differences are the basis for the atk of the energy conversion system discussed in this section.

The site characteristics, shown in Table 2. A functional schematic and listing of modification and improvement options to improve halide tolerance and increase rated power capability on landfill gas are provided in Table 2.

From these requirements we will design the demonstration hardware, in- stallation interfaces and demonstration test plan to accomplish the goals of the program.